Modifying and avoiding risk factors
More than 30% of cancer could be prevented by modifying or avoiding key risk factors, including:
- tobacco use
- being overweight or obese
- low fruit and vegetable intake
- physical inactivity
- alcohol use
- sexually transmitted HPV-infection
- urban air pollution
- indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels.
- Increase avoidance of the risk factors listed above.
- Vaccinate against human papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV).
- Control occupational hazards.
- Reduce exposure to sunlight.
Cancer mortality can be reduced if cases are detected and treated early. There are two components of early detection efforts:
The awareness of early signs and symptoms (such as cervical, breast and oral cancers) in order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment before the disease becomes advanced. Early diagnosis programmes are particularly relevant in low-resource settings where the majority of patients are diagnosed in very late stages.
The systematic application of a screening test in an asymptomatic population. It aims to identify individuals with abnormalities suggestive of a specific cancer or pre-cancer and refer them promptly for diagnosis and treatment. Screening programmes are especially effective for frequent cancer types that have a screening test that is cost-effective, affordable, acceptable and accessible to the majority of the population at risk.
Examples of screening methods are:
- visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for cervical cancer in low-resource settings;
- PAP test for cervical cancer in middle- and high-income settings;
- mammography screening for breast cancer in high-income settings.
Treatment is the series of interventions, including psychosocial support, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy that is aimed at curing the disease or considerably prolonging life while improving the patient's quality of life.
Treatment of early detectable cancers
Some of the most common cancer types, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, oral cancer and colorectal cancer have higher cure rates when detected early and treated according to best practices.
Treatment of other cancers with potential for cure
Some cancer types, even though disseminated, such as leukemias and lymphomas in children, and testicular seminoma, have high cure rates if appropriate treatment is provided.
Palliative care is treatment to relieve, rather than cure, symptoms caused by cancer. Palliative care can help people live more comfortably; it is an urgent humanitarian need for people worldwide with cancer and other chronic fatal diseases. It is particularly needed in places with a high proportion of patients in advanced stages where there is little chance of cure.
Relief from physical, psychosocial and spiritual problems can be achieved in over 90% of advanced cancer patients through palliative care.
Palliative care strategies
Effective public health strategies, comprising of community- and home-based care are essential to provide pain relief and palliative care for patients and their families in low-resource settings.
Improved access to oral morphine is mandatory for the treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain, suffered by over 80% of cancer patients in terminal phase.
In 2008, WHO launched its Noncommunicable Diseases Action Plan.
WHO and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the specialized cancer agency of WHO, collaborate with other United Nations organizations and partners in the areas of international cancer prevention and control to:
- increase political commitment for cancer prevention and control;
- generate new knowledge, and disseminate existing knowledge to facilitate the delivery of evidence-based approaches to cancer control;
- develop standards and tools to guide the planning and implementation of interventions for prevention, early detection, treatment and care;
- facilitate broad networks of cancer control partners at global, regional and national levels;
- strengthen health systems at national and local levels;
- provide technical assistance for rapid, effective transfer of best practice interventions to developing countries; and
- coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and develop scientific strategies for cancer prevention and control.
1 Globocan 2008, IARC, 2010
Source – World Health Organization